Vasectomy is a simple procedure. Complications are unusual but possible.
Excessive bleeding occurs in less than 5 percent of men. Most bleeding problems occur within 8 hours postoperatively. Bleeding within the scrotum can lead to a haematoma which is an expanding mass of blood within the tissues around the vas.
Infection occurs in up to 4 percent of men who have a vasectomy. This usually involves the scrotal skin around the incision. Occasionally, the epididymis will become swollen and is usually treated with a short course of oral antibiotics.
A sperm granuloma may occur, which is a small lump that develops over time as a result of the body’s immune reaction to sperm leaking from the cut end of the vas.
Post-vasectomy pain syndrome
A feeling of fullness from sperm congestion occurs in up to 6 percent of men after vasectomy. This is due to stretching of the surface of the epididymis from stored sperm cells. The full sensation usually resolves after a few weeks and requires no treatment, but a very small number of men may develop chronic pain.
Pregnancy can occur if a man fails to abstain from sex or use alternative contraception until one clear semen test has been achieved. There is a 1-2000 chance that the cut vas will spontaneously re-join, following a negative semen test.